In the information security field, the term “human attack surface” refers to the ways in which people can be targeted by attackers. This can include social engineering attacks, which exploit humans’ natural tendencies to trust and cooperate, as well as more direct attacks such as phishing or malware that is designed to trick people into giving up their passwords or other sensitive information.

Reducing the human attack surface in your organization starts with awareness. Employees need to be aware of the ways they can be targeted, and they need to be given the tools and training to spot and avoid these attacks. Additionally, policies and procedures should be put in place to limit the amount of sensitive information that is shared within the organization, and to protect this information when it must be shared.

With awareness and proper precautions in place, you can greatly reduce the chances of your organization becoming a victim of a human-based attack.

Social Engineering

ocial engineering is a type of online attack that tricks people into revealing personal information or allowing access to protected systems. The attacker pretends to be someone the victim trusts, such as a friend, colleague, or authority figure. They then use this relationship to coerce the victim into doing something that will benefit the attacker, such as clicking on a malicious link, downloading malware, or giving up sensitive information.

Social engineering attacks are successful because they exploit human nature. We are naturally trusting and helpful creatures, which makes us easy targets for criminals who know how to take advantage of this. However, there are some things you can do to protect yourself from social engineering attacks.

Firstly, be suspicious of unsolicited communications, even if they appear to come from someone you know. If someone you don’t know asks you for personal information or money, do not respond. Be wary of requests for urgent action or unusual requests that require you to deviate from your normal procedures.

Secondly, never give out personal information or login credentials in response to an unsolicited communication. Legitimate organizations will never ask for this type of information via email, text message, or over the phone.

Finally, keep your systems and software up-to-date with the latest security patches. This will help to close any vulnerabilities that could be exploited by attackers.


hishing is a type of online scam where criminals pose as a legitimate company or person in order to trick you into giving them your personal information, such as your login details or credit card number. They do this by sending you an email or message that looks like it’s from a real company or person, and often includes official-looking logos or branding.

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If you click on any of the links in the email or message, you’ll be taken to a fake website that looks almost identical to the real thing. The fake website will then ask you to enter your personal information, which the criminals will use to commit fraud or theft.

Phishing scams are becoming increasingly sophisticated, so it’s important to be aware of how to spot them. Here are some tips:

• Be suspicious of any unsolicited emails or messages, even if they appear to be from a company or person you know. If you’re not expecting the email or message, don’t click on any links.

• Hover your mouse over any links in the email or message to see where they’re really taking you. If the link looks suspicious, don’t click on it.

• Don’t enter any personal information on a website unless you’re sure it’s legitimate. Check for things like a valid SSL certificate and security seals from well-known companies.

If you think you may have been a victim of a phishing scam, report it to the company or person that you think sent the email or message, and then change your passwords and monitor your accounts for any unusual activity.


alware is short for malicious software and refers to any type of code that is designed to harm your computer or steal your personal information. Malware can be installed on your computer without your knowledge, often through email attachments or by visiting infected websites. Once installed, malware can do anything from displaying annoying pop-up ads to stealing your sensitive data, like passwords and credit card numbers.

There are many different types of malware, but some of the most common include viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, and adware. While each type of malware behaves differently, they all share one common goal: to cause damage or gain access to your personal information.

The best way to protect yourself from malware is to install an anti-virus program and keep it up-to-date. Anti-virus programs scan your computer for signs of malware and remove any infected files they find. You should also avoid opening email attachments from unknown senders, and be careful when downloading files from the internet.

DDoS Attacks

DDoS attack is a type of cyber attack that tries to make a computer or network resource unavailable to its users by flooding it with Internet traffic.

DDoS attacks are often used to target websites or online services, but they can also be used to target other types of networks or systems.

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DDoS attacks can be very disruptive and can cause significant financial damage to the organizations that are targeted.

Password Attacks

password attack is a type of cyberattack where a malicious actor attempts to gain access to a computer system or network by guessing or brute forcing the password of a user.

Password guessing can be done by trying common passwords, such as “123456” or “password”, or by using a dictionary attack, where a list of words is used as passwords. Brute force attacks involve trying every possible combination of characters until the correct password is found.

Password attacks can be prevented by using strong passwords that are difficult to guess, and by using two-factor authentication, which requires another form of verification, such as a fingerprint or code, in addition to the password.

SQL Injection

QL Injection is a type of attack where malicious code is inserted into a database through user input, in order to gain access to sensitive data. This can be done by exploiting vulnerabilities in the application that uses the database. SQL Injection can be used to bypass security measures, such as authentication and authorization. It can also be used to modify data in the database, or delete it altogether.

SQL Injection attacks are very common, and can be very difficult to prevent. The best way to protect against SQL Injection is to use parameterized queries, which check user input for malicious code before it is executed.

Cross-Site Scripting

ross-Site Scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject malicious code into webpages viewed by other users. When a user views the page, the malicious code is executed by their browser, resulting in the attacker achieving their desired outcome, such as stealing the user’s cookies or session tokens.

There are two types of XSS attacks: stored and reflected. Stored XSS attacks are more dangerous because they can affect many users, as the malicious code is stored on the website’s server. Reflected XSS attacks are less common, but can still be dangerous. They occur when the attacker injects malicious code into a web page, which is then reflected back to the user when they view the page.

To prevent XSS attacks, web developers need to sanitize all user input before displaying it on a web page. This can be done by using a whitelist of allowed characters, or by escaping special characters.

Zero-Day Exploits

ero-day exploits are vulnerabilities in software or hardware that are unknown to the vendor. These types of exploits are often used by attackers to gain access to systems or data. Zero-day exploits are difficult to protect against because they are not yet known to the vendor. In many cases, vendors only become aware of these types of vulnerabilities after an attack has already taken place.

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Zero-day exploits are often used in targeted attacks. This is because attackers can take advantage of the fact that the vulnerability is not yet known and therefore has not been patched. Targeted attacks are usually carried out by more sophisticated attackers, such as nation-states or organized crime groups. These groups have the resources and skills necessary to find and exploit zero-day vulnerabilities.

Zero-day exploits can have a significant impact on organizations. They can lead to data breaches, system compromises, and downtime. In some cases, attackers may use zero-day exploits to gain a foothold in an organization’s network and then use that access to launch further attacks.

Organizations can protect themselves from zero-day exploits by keeping their systems up-to-date with the latest security patches. They should also deploy security controls, such as firewalls and intrusion detection/prevention systems, which can help to detect and block attacks that exploit these types of vulnerabilities.

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

man-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyberattack where the attacker secretly intercepts and relays communication between two victims. This allows the attacker to eavesdrop on the conversation, modify the messages, or impersonate one of the victims.

One common way man-in-the-middle attacks are carried out is by spoofing the MAC address of a trusted device on the network. This allows the attacker to intercept traffic meant for the trusted device and redirect it to their own device. Another way is by setting up a rogue access point and enticing victims to connect to it. Once connected, the attacker can carry out a number of activities such as eavesdropping on communications, injecting malicious code, or redirecting traffic to other websites.

Man-in-the-middle attacks can be very difficult to detect because they rely on stealth and deception. However, there are some signs that an attack may be underway such as unexpected pop-ups or ads, unusual activity on your account, or unexpected changes in website content. If you suspect you are being attacked, it is important to disconnect from the network and contact your IT department or security team immediately.

Insider Threats

privileged access management
-least privilege
-application whitelisting
-software restriction policies
-data loss prevention
-intrusion detection and prevention systems
-security information and event management

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