When it comes to securing an organization’s data and systems, it’s important to not only focus on the internal network, but also the external attack surface. This is where scanning the external attack surface comes in. By regularly scanning the perimeter of your network, you can identify potential vulnerabilities that could be exploited by attackers.

There are a number of different tools and techniques that can be used for scanning the external attack surface. One popular option is port scanning, which involves identifying open ports on a system and then assessing the security of those ports. Another option is vulnerability scanning, which looks for known vulnerabilities in systems and applications.

Both port scanning and vulnerability scanning can be performed manually or automated using tools such as Nmap or Qualys Guard. When choosing a tool, it’s important to consider your needs and the capabilities of the tool. For example, some tools may only be able to scan a single host at a time, while others can scan multiple hosts concurrently.

No matter which tool you use, regular scanning of the external attack surface is an important part of maintaining a secure network. By identifying potential vulnerabilities, you can take steps to mitigate them before they’re exploited by attackers.


econnaissance is the military term for collecting information about an enemy, either through direct observation or by other means such as intercepted communications. The purpose of reconnaissance is to gather intelligence about enemy forces so that commanders can make better decisions about how to defeat them.

There are many different ways to conduct reconnaissance, but some of the most common methods include using aircraft or drones to observe enemy positions, using satellites to collect imagery, or sending in ground troops to gather information. Reconnaissance can also be conducted electronically, by intercepting enemy communications or using sensors to detect movement.

No matter what method is used, the goal of reconnaissance is always the same: to gather information about the enemy so that commanders can make better decisions about how to defeat them.

social engineering

ocial engineering is the process of tricking people into giving you information or access that you shouldn’t have. This can be done in person, over the phone, or online.

One common way social engineering is done is by pretending to be someone else, like a customer service representative or a technical support person. The attacker will then try to get the victim to give them sensitive information, like passwords or credit card numbers. They may also try to get the victim to download malware or give them remote access to their computer.

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Social engineering attacks can be very difficult to spot because the attacker is often using legitimate-looking methods, like emails or websites, to trick their victims. And since they’re targeting people instead of systems, social engineering attacks can be difficult to prevent. The best way to protect yourself from social engineering attacks is to be aware of them and to never give out sensitive information to someone you don’t know.


hishing is a type of online scam where criminals pose as a reputable organization and try to trick you into giving them sensitive information. They do this by sending emails or pop-up messages that look like they’re from a real company, often using the company’s logo and branding. The message will usually ask you to click on a link or download an attachment, which will then install malware on your computer or device. Or, it will redirect you to a fake website that looks real but is actually controlled by the criminals. They may even go so far as to call you on the phone and pretend to be from a legitimate company.

If you do accidentally give them your information, they can use it to commit fraud or identity theft. That’s why it’s important to be aware of phishing scams and know how to protect yourself.


alware is a type of software that is designed to harm your computer or mobile device. It can steal your personal information, delete your files, or even take over your device. Malware is often spread through email attachments or downloads from untrustworthy websites. To protect yourself, it’s important to install security software on your device and only download files from trusted sources.

denial of service

denial of service attack (DoS attack) is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it generally consists of the concerted efforts of a person or persons to prevent an Internet site or service from functioning efficiently or at all, temporarily or permanently.

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There are two general forms of DoS attacks: those that crash services and those that flood services. The most common method of attack is to flood the target with more requests than it can handle, causing it to slow down or even crash. Another form of DoS attack is to exploit flaws in the way a service handles requests, causing it to enter an infinite loop or consume all available resources.

DoS attacks are often used as a form of protest or revenge, but they can also be used for criminal or political gain.

session hijacking

ession hijacking is a type of cyberattack where an attacker takes control of a victim’s active session. The attacker can then use the session to access the victim’s account or perform other actions as if they were the victim.

Session hijacking can occur in a number of ways, but the most common is through session ID vulnerabilities. A session ID is a unique identifier that is used to identify a user’s session. When a user logs into an account, a session ID is generated and assigned to the user. The session ID is then used to track the user’s activity and keep them logged into their account.

However, if an attacker can somehow obtain a user’s session ID, they can impersonate the user and take over their session. The attacker can then do anything that the user can do within that session, including accessing sensitive information or making changes to the account.

Session hijacking is a serious threat because it can be difficult to detect and prevent. However, there are some measures that you can take to protect yourself from this type of attack. For example, you can use a VPN or encrypt your communications using SSL/TLS. You can also make sure to log out of your account when you are not using it and to use strong passwords for all of your accounts.

man in the middle attack

man-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyberattack where a malicious actor inserts himself into a conversation between two victims in order to eavesdrop or steal data.

The attacker intercepts communication between the two victims and can read, modify, or even delete data as it passes between them. Man-in-the-middle attacks can be difficult to detect because the attacker often masquerades as one of the legitimate parties involved in the communication.

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There are several ways that attackers can carry out man-in-the-middle attacks. One common method is to use a malicious piece of software to redirect traffic from one victim to the attacker’s computer. The attacker then relays the communication back to the second victim, giving the impression that they are communicating directly with each other.

Another way attackers can carry out man-in-the-middle attacks is by compromising a router or other network device and using it to redirect traffic. This type of attack is often used in public Wi-Fi networks, where an attacker can set up a fake Wi-Fi network that looks identical to the legitimate one. When victims connect to the fake network, their traffic is routed through the attacker’s computer, giving them access to any data that is transmitted.

Man-in-the-middle attacks can have serious consequences for both individuals and organizations. Attackers can use them to steal sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial data. They can also use man-in-the-middle attacks to inject malware into communications in order to infect victim’s computers with viruses or ransomware.

Organizations can protect themselves from man-in-the-middle attacks by using encryption technologies, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), that make it difficult for attackers to intercept and read communications. They can also use authentication measures, such as digital signatures, to verify that communications are coming from the intended party.

DNS poisoning

NS poisoning is a type of cyber attack in which an attacker corrupts the Domain Name System (DNS) to point a domain name to the wrong IP address. This can be used to redirect traffic intended for a legitimate website to a malicious one, where the attacker can then steal sensitive information or infect the victim’s machine with malware.

DNS poisoning is relatively easy to carry out and can have devastating consequences. For example, in 2010, the popular website WikiLeaks was the victim of DNS poisoning attacks that redirected visitors to fake versions of the site. These fake sites then installed malware on the visitors’ computers.

ARP spoofing

-passive information gathering
-active information gathering
-scanning methods
-scanning tools
-vulnerability scanning
-penetration testing
-web application security testing

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